CURRICULUM

HISTORY

History Curriculum Intent

The purpose of the History curriculum is to endow students with a love of history, and enable their engagement with history, both in and out of school. They will develop skills that are essential to understand the twenty-first century world; that the power structures of the world are not static but shifting; learning not to accept everything they see and hear but instead seek to analyse the purpose and source of information.

HISTORICAL STRANDS

CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE

This strand is the centre of our year 7 curriculum, with students then refining their skills over their time at Horizon. Students begin by ensuring they can confidently arrange events into chronological order, then develop their ability to explain how and why one event can cause another, before progressing to think about long term, short term and trigger causes, and the relative impact of various causes and consequences.
This strand is the centre of our year 8 curriculum, with students then continuing to build this skill as it will eventually be crucial for GCSE historians. Our department uses Christine Counsell’s ‘5 Rs’ (Remembered, Resonant, Results in Change, Revealing & Remarkable) to help students explain why some historical events or figures have had a greater impact on history than others. In year 9, students progress to using ‘ascribed significance,’ understanding why different historians and societies may seek to emphasise some significance over others.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE

HISTORICAL SKILLS

USING SOURCES

Students begin working on sources in year 7, and continue to encounter them all the way to year 11. Our department takes the AQA definition of an historical source to mean a record created within 5 years of the event being studied. Students develop their understanding of the different sources available to historians, before working on why those sources are useful to historians, analysing how far they reinforce what students have learned and looking at who has created the source affects this utility.
Interpretations are opinions about history, created by those who were not present at the time. Beginning in year 8 and continuing to year 11, students begin by learning to paraphrase the views of other historians and progress to analysing various interpretations of the same event, linking this to ascribed significance and ultimately gaining confidence in creating their own interpretations.

ANALYSING & CREATING INTERPRETATIONS

Year 7

Greece
Content
Students are introduced to the Ancient Greeks and study whether they are as 'civilised' as historians have often assumed. We study Greek beliefs, Pericles, Socrates, Aristotle and the position of women and enslaved people in Ancient Athens.
Skills
Students are working on: Writing to show cause and consequence. Understanding chronological order. Describing the types of sources a historian would use and making inferences from these.
TOPIC 1
Rome
Content
Students continue with the theme of 'civilisation.' We compare the Romans to the Greeks and investigate whether the Romans 'civilised' Britain. Our study will include life in Roman Britain, Julius Caesar, Hadrian's Wall and Boudica's rebellion.
Skills
Students are working on: Writing to show cause and consequence. Understanding chronological order. Describing the types of sources a historian would use and making inferences from these.
Topic 2
Saxons & Normans
Content
Year 7 now build on their study of Greece and Rome to look at what England was like after the departure of the Romans; what was Anglo-Saxon society like? How did it rise and fall? Our study will include three famous Anglo-Saxon kings; Offa, Alfred and Edward the Confessor, as well as the events of 1066.
Skills
Students are working on: Using cause and consequence consistently in their writing. Evaluating how one cause / consequence can be more important than another. All students should now be able to make an inference from a source, while beginning to work on applying our knowledge to them.
Topic 3
Plantaganets
Content
Students now move on to perhaps the most important dynasty in English history, and compare the civilisation they built to those of Greeks, Romans and Anglo-Saxons. To achieve this, we will study Stephen & Matilda, Henry II, Richard I, John and Edward II. We will then compare these English kings to the African ruler Mansa Musa and assess the importance of Eleanor of Aquitaine, mother of Richard and John.
Skills
Students are working on: Using cause and consequence consistently in their writing. Evaluating how one cause / consequence can be more important than another. All students should now be able to make an inference from a source, while beginning to work on applying our knowledge to them.
Topic 4
Life in 14th Century England; The Black Death and the Peasants' revolt
Content
In this topic, students will encounter the turbulence of the 14th century, where England faced the trauma of the Black Death, which indirectly led to the first widespread uprising by the lowest class of society
Skills
All students should now be working on applying their own knowledge to historical sources, and progressing to studying the importance of the sources' origin; who created the source? Why? What does this reveal to the historian? All students should also now be able to write using clear cause and consequence, while beginning to work on establishing long term vs short term causes.
Topic 5
Tudors & Stuarts
Content
In the last topic of year 7, students study the impact on England of the Tudor period. They become familiar with the importance of religion and the struggles for power between rulers and families. Our studies will include Henry VII & VIII, Lady Jane Grey and Mary I, Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots.
Skills
All students should now be working on applying their own knowledge to historical sources, and progressing to studying the importance of the sources' origin; who created the source? Why? What does this reveal to the historian? All students should also now be able to write using clear cause and consequence, while beginning to work on establishing long term vs short term causes.
Topic 6

Year 8

English Civil War
Content
Students begin year 8 by exploring the upheaval of the English Civil War. They understand that the war had religious, political and economic causes. Students then study the events of the war, the execution of Charles I, the interregnum and Oliver Cromwell and the restoration of Charles II.
Skills
Students are continuing to work on cause and consequence within a historical narrative including long term, short term causes and trigger causes. Students are introduced to the interpretations of historians, and can summarise the opinions of historians in their own words.
TOPIC 1
Empire
Content
Students now move on to studying the interaction between the British Isles and the rest of the world, driven by the building of the British Empire. Students study Empire in India, Africa, white settler colonies and Hong Kong. They assess the lessons historians can learn from these interactions, including the Slave trade, and reach judgements on how empire should be remembered.
Skills
Students are continuing to work on cause and consequence within a historical narrative including long term, short term causes and trigger causes. Students are introduced to the interpretations of historians, and can select appropriate quotations from these interpretations in order to demonstrate the historian's opinion.
Topic 2
Barnsley & the Industrial Revolution
Content
In this topic, students analyse the process of urbanisation during the Industrial Revolution, understanding why towns such as Barnsley came into being. They study working conditions in factories and mines, as well as efforts by working people to organise and improve these conditions and their lives more widely.
Skills
Students are now building on cause and consequence to consider the significance of historical events. They can also explain the different experiences within a time period, for example the rich and poor or men and women. Students should now be able to paraphrase the opinion of an historian and suggests whether their view of an event or person is positive, negative or balanced, Students use these skills to demonstrate a clear understanding of the difference between sources and interpretations.
Topic 3
Women in Victorian Britain
Content
This topic is a case study of women in Victorian London, based on the book 'The Five' by the historian Hallie Rubenhold. The study focuses on the five likely victims of Jack the Ripper, but uses their unfortunate fame to ask questions about women's place in society, their reliance on men, treatment by those in authority and the impact of alcoholism.
Skills
Students are now building on cause and consequence to consider the significance of historical events. They can also explain the different experiences within a time period, for example the rich and poor or men and women. Students should now be able to paraphrase the opinion of an historian and suggests whether their view of an event or person is positive, negative or balanced, Students use these skills to demonstrate a clear understanding of the difference between sources and interpretations.
Topic 4
First World War
Content
Students study the long and short term causes of the First World War, including the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. They study the events of the war and analyse why men joined, before looking at rival interpretations of British commanders including Douglas Haig. Lastly, we study the contribution of Commonwealth soldiers and the experiences of women during the war.
Skills
Students should now be confident enough to discuss two aspects of historical significance, and compare at least two events or developments, as well as analysing similarities and differences within a period. Students should now be able to understand why historians may have different opinions of the same event.
Topic 5
Equality
Content
This topic further explores the development of equality in Britain over time. Students return to the campaign for class equality, and compare this to women's suffrage, British race relations and the LGBT movement.
Skills
Students should now be confident enough to discuss two aspects of historical significance, and compare at least two events or developments, as well as analysing similarities and differences within a period. Students should now be able to understand why historians may have different opinions of the same event.
Topic 6

Year 9

Nazism
Content
Year 9 begins with an introduction the condition of Germany after the First World War, followed by an analysis of how the Nazis gained and consolidated power. This includes the Reichstag Fire, Enabling Act and the Night of the Long Knives.
Skills
Students should now be confident enough to discuss three aspects of historical significance, and compare at least two events or developments, as well as analysing similarities and differences between topics or periods. Students should also be able to explain how and why different perspectives lead to different ideas of historical significance. Students should now be able to analyse historians' interpretations and identify why they are convincing.
TOPIC 1
The Holocaust
Content
Students now build upon their study of Nazism to study how the Nazis classified, persecuted and exterminated Jews and other minority groups. Students also consider the Jewish resistance and assess British reactions to the Holocaust.
Skills
Students should now be confident enough to discuss three aspects of historical significance, and compare at least two events or developments, as well as analysing similarities and differences between topics or periods. Students should also be able to explain how and why different perspectives lead to different ideas of historical significance. Students should now be able to analyse historians' interpretations and identify why they are convincing.
Topic 2
Second World War
Content
Students continue to study the period of the Second World War by analysing how different nations have tended to different memories of the conflict. Dunkirk, the Battle of Britain, the war in the Pacific and North Africa as well as the end of the war and the atomic bombs form part of the analysis.
Skills
Students should now be confident enough to discuss three aspects of historical significance, and compare at least two events or developments, as well as analysing similarities and differences between topics or periods. Students should also be able to explain how and why different perspectives lead to different ideas of historical significance. Students should now be able to analyse historians' interpretations and identify why they are convincing.
Topic 3
Post War Britain
Content
This topic centres on the social changes experienced by British people in the decades after the Second World War. Students cover the experiences of women, youth culture and teenage violence, as well as race and racism.
Skills
Students should now be able to draw together the concepts they have learned and discuss how they have influenced the Post WW2 world. Students should also be able to explain how and why different perspectives lead to deliberately ascribed versions of historical significance, e.g. between different countries or groups of people.. Students should now be able to analyse two, potentially opposing historians' interpretations and identify why they are both arguably convincing.
Topic 4
Cold War
Content
The Cold War prepares students for GCSE History by cementing their knowledge of communism and capitalism, and the struggle for supremacy between the rival ideologies. Students explore the Berlin Blockade, the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War.
Skills
Students should now be able to draw together the concepts they have learned and discuss how they have influenced the Post WW2 world. Students should also be able to explain how and why different perspectives lead to deliberately ascribed versions of historical significance, e.g. between different countries or groups of people.. Students should now be able to analyse two, potentially opposing historians' interpretations and identify why they are both arguably convincing.
Topic 5
Conflict and Tension: Peacemaking
Content
This topic is the first taken only by students who have chosen GCSE History. Here they begin to explain how the Second World War began only 21 years after the First. The Peacemaking unit covers the aims of Great Britain, France and the USA after the war and the eventual imposition of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany.
Skills
This is the first part of the GCSE Wider World Depth Study; students will be developing knowledge and understanding of a period of about a year in depth. Students also improve their skills of source analysis.
Topic 6
Health: Medicine Stands Still
Content
Students begin their study of British health over the past millennium in the Medieval period. They examine what Medieval people believed about causes and treatments, the influence of religion on health and Medieval surgery.
Skills
This is the first part of the GCSE Thematic Study. Students will be developing broad overview knowledge and understanding about a period of 500 years. Students continue to build on their skills of source analysis, including analysing the origin as well as the content of sources.
Topic 7
USA: 1920s
Content
Eventually, students will study the USA from 1920-73. Here they begin in the 1920s and analyse whether the period is best described as one of opportunity or inequality. We cover the Economic Boom, the position of women, the treatment of immigrants to the USA and the experience of African Americans.
Skills
This is the first part of the GCSE Period Study. This is a mid point between Depth and Thematic studies, so here students study an initial period of ten years in American history. Students now shift from working on source analysis to working with interpretations of historians and others looking back at the period in question.
Topic 8

Year 10

Norman England: Conquest & Control
Content
Students begin year 10 with the Norman Conquest. In beginning to understand how the Normans conquered and then established themselves in England, they study the contenders to the throne in 1066, the Battles of Fulford, Stamford Bridge and Hastings, then the means William I used to keep control, including the violent Harrying of the North.
Skills
This is the first part of the GCSE British Depth Study. Students are here challenged to understand the history of the Norman Conquest, in depth. Students continue to work on using interpretations, in this case often written almost a thousand years after the event, and testing them against their own knowledge.
TOPIC 1
Conflict and Tension: League of Nations
Content
Students build on their work on the Treaty of Versailles by analysing why the League of Nations failed to maintain world peace in the 1920s and 1930s. They cover the mixed fortunes of the League in the 1920s, including the Aaland Islands and Corfu crises, before moving on to the more severe 1930s problems in Manchuria and Abyssinia.
Skills
This is the second part of the GCSE Wider World Depth Study; students will be developing knowledge and understanding of a short period involving the League of Nations' attempts at world peace. Students continue to build their skills of source analysis, to include political cartoons from the period.
Topic 2
Health: Beginnings of Change
Content
Students move on from Medieval Health to study how British medicine slowly improved in the Early Modern period, from 1500-1750. The 17th Century Great Plague is compared to the Black Death, while the contributions of Vesalius, Pare, Harvey and Jenner are also covered.
Skills
This is the second part of the GCSE Thematic Study. Students will be developing broad overview knowledge and understanding about a period of 250 years. Students continue to build on their skills of source analysis, including analysing the origin as well as the content of sources.
Topic 3
USA: 1930s
Content
This portion of the USA period study begins with the Great Depression, in stark contrast to the 'Roaring 20s.' Students explore why Roosevelt was able to defeat Hoover in the 1932 Presidential Election, before investigating whether it was Roosevelt's New Deal or the Second World War that truly ended America's decade of depression.
Skills
This is the second part of the GCSE Period Study. This is a mid point between Depth and Thematic studies, so here students study a second period of ten years in American history. Students build on their previous work with interpretations of historians and others looking back at the period in question. They apply their judgment securely on why these interpretations are convincing.
Topic 4
Norman England: Life and Church
Content
Having explored the Norman Conquest, students now question how far England was changed by the Conquest. Students explore Norman changes to the Feudal, Legal and Government systems, as well as changes to towns and villages. Then, we move to investigate the changes to English religion and the relationship between the Norman kings and the Popes
Skills
This is the second part of the GCSE British Depth Study. Students are here challenged to understand the history of the Norman Conquest, in depth. Students continue to work on using interpretations, in this case often written almost a thousand years after the event, and that are now.
Topic 5
USA: Post War
Content
This section of the USA period study spans from the end of the Second World War to 1973. Students consider whether the American Dream of the Post War period was a reality or an illusion, by studying the experience of women and African Americans, and by investigating the USA's evolving reaction to Communism.
Skills
This is the third and final part of the GCSE Period Study. This is a mid point between Depth and Thematic studies, so here students study a third period of American history. Students build on their previous work with interpretations of historians and others looking back at the period in question. They apply their judgment securely on why these interpretations are convincing, linking to detailed expert knowledge.
Topic 6

Year 11

Norman England: Historic Environment
Content
This is a case study unit which changes each year, but is linked to an aspect of Norman England and focuses on a specific historic site, such as a castle, battlefield or monastery. Students consider the location, function, structure and design of the site, as well as its links to culture, individuals or events.
Skills
This unit is linked to the GCSE British Depth Study, but tests a unique set of skills. Here, students are provided with a pack of information they will be able to refer to, from memory, in their exam. They therefore need to work through the information, identifying key facts and form ideas on arguments they may be able to use in a persuasive historical essay.
TOPIC 1
Health: Modern Medicine
Content
Students continue with their analysis of British health by studying the 19th and 20th Centuries. For the 19th Century, they study the impact of anaesthetic and antiseptic, Pasteur's Germ Theory and John Snow's work on cholera. In the 20th, progress moves to penicillin and the contrast between the impact of the two world wars and the reforming 1945 Labour government, including the foundation of the NHS.
Skills
This is the third and final part of the GCSE Thematic Study. Students will be developing broad overview knowledge and understanding about a period of about 300 years. Students continue to build on their skills of source analysis, including analysing the origin as well as the content of sources. They are expected to make clear links between the health reforms of the 20th Century and health in the 21st Century.
Topic 2
Conflict and Tension: Road to WW2
Content
The final element of new learning before beginning GCSE revision centres on the actions of Hitler, and those who interacted with him, between 1934 and 1939. Looking at the causes of the Second World War, this unit includes the Remilitarisation of the Rhineland, Anschluss with Austria, Czechoslovakia and the Munich Agreement and the Nazi-Soviet Pact.
Skills
This is the third and final part of the GCSE Wider World Depth Study; students will be developing knowledge and understanding of a short period involving Hitler's actions in Europe and the causes of the Second World War. Students continue to build their skills of source analysis, to include political cartoons from the period and opinions of the key figures in the debate on appeasement.
Topic 3